Post World War I & II the mad scientists and bankers had an absolute field day with all the knowledge gained from the psychological effects of combat and experiments carried out in the labour camps, they also learned much in the drive to secure the Atomic age.
It has to be said that the foundation of the ever expanding technocratic prison we suffer today, is due to the information gained in relation to the human body, its chemistry, its electrical systems and the operation of the brain. It would be fair to assume that if the good guys had indeed won, then nothing but good would have come from the technological advances?
Of course to day those who are awake to the workings of power can see absolutely….The bad guys started the war, they made a fortune in financing the war, made a fortune for the re-build after the war, and so it is clear, the bad guys won the war because they own war.
In two previous reports a picture is formed of a three pronged attack against the populations, one in relation to a medical intrusion, and a second, showing itself as a psychological attack. After some contemplation over this information one thing became very clear, what had been learned during the war was then structured to carry out a silent war against the populations, especially it would appear against the West.
The following information adds to the aforementioned twin assault adding a third dimension to the sordid affair. The following history would be classed as a biological attack through chemicals in the food chain and as an airborne mechanic to affect the very air we breath seen today in the geoengineering agenda, also known as chemtrails. The three main players are an English mad-man, an American mad-man and a seriously twisted man from Japan.
Military Application Chemical and Biological Warfare
February 10, 1882, : Paul Fildes, son of noted painter Samuel Luke Fildes, is born in London.
June 25, 1892, : Shiro Ishii is born near Tokyo.
September 20, 1895, : Ira Baldwin is born on an Indiana farm.
1904 : Fildes enters medical school to study to become a surgeon, but soon transfers to bacteriology.
1916 : Guards patrol the gates at Porton Down Germ Warfare establishment. The British establish a secret facility at Porton Down to deal with the threat of chemical weapons.
1920 : Ishii receives his medical degree from Kyoto Imperial University; he soon develops an interest in bacteriology.
June 17, 1925,: Geneva Protocol : Spurred by the horrors of World War I, delegates in Switzerland create a Geneva Protocol banning the use of chemical and bacteriological methods of warfare. However, countries are still allowed to research, develop, and produce these weapons. Thirty-nine countries sign the protocol, including the United States. Although the Senate refuses to ratify the treaty, the U.S. government says it will still abide by the terms.
1928 : Spurred by his interest in biological weapons, Ishii begins a two-year fact-finding trip around the world, visiting Europe and America.
1930 : Shiro Ishii is appointed professor of immunology at the Tokyo Army Medical College. He is promoted to the rank of major in Japan’s Army Medical Corps and begins to advocate for a Japanese biological weapons program.
1931 : Fildes edits a nine-volume treatise on bacteriology that is published by the Medical Research Council, whose Bacteriological Chemistry Unit he heads.
1932 : The Japanese Army gives Shiro Ishii control of three biological research centres, including one in Manchuria, a Chinese province that the Japanese had invaded a year earlier. After the surrender of Japan, the Soviet Red Army discovered secret installations for experimenting with and producing chemical weapons and biological weapons of mass destruction centred around secret Army Unit 731 and its subsidiaries. At these locations, the Kwantung Army was also responsible for some of the most infamous Japanese war crimes, including the operation of several human experimentation programs using live Chinese, American and Russian civilians, and POWs, directed by Dr. Shiro Ishii.
March 1933 : U.S. Army Medical Corps Major Leon Fox publishes an article in the magazine Military Surgeon dismissing the idea of biological weapons. “Practically insurmountable difficulties prevent the use of biologic agents as effective weapons,” Fox wrote.
1934 : International Biological Weapons Research
Great Britain begins taking steps towards establishing its own biological weapons research project. Although the Medical Research Council is cool to the idea, Fildes agrees to assist the government.
1937 : Construction commences on a large Japanese biological weapons complex called Ping Fan near the Manchurian City of Harbin.
1940 : The Japanese biological weapons complex Ping Fang begins operations. It employs some 3,000 personnel under Ishii’s direction, working on a wide variety of biological agents, including bacteria that cause plague and anthrax. Over the next five years, Unit 731, as it becomes known, conducts horrific tests on Chinese prisoners and, allegedly, some Allied POWs. Victims are injected with, forced to eat, and made to breathe deadly pathogens. Often prisoners are killed before the diseases have become terminal so autopsies can be performed. Ishii’s men also create bacteriological bombs, and later that year Japanese warplanes repeatedly drop porcelain bombs containing fleas infected with plague over Chinese towns, resulting in several outbreaks of plague among the human population.
Meanwhile, in England, a new biology department is established at Porton Down with Fildes as its head. His initial research focuses on botulism and anthrax.
November 18, 1941, : A committee of nine eminent American biologists convenes at Secretary of War Henry Stimson’s request to investigate the possibility of germ warfare.
February 17, 1942, : Stimson’s committee issues the first of its two reports, concluding that biological warfare is “distinctly feasible” and the United States should begin its own biological weapons program immediately.
April 29, 1942, : Stimson writes to President Franklin Roosevelt conceding that biological warfare is “a dirty business” but arguing America must be prepared. In May, Roosevelt approves the creation of a U.S. biological weapons program.
July 15, 1942 : Anthrax Tests Successful
A team of Porton Down scientists led by Fildes begin outdoor testing of anthrax bacteria on the remote Scottish Island of Gruinard. They set off anthrax-filled bombs and observe their impact on a group of sheep placed downwind. Most of the sheep die within a few days.
September 26, 1942, : Fildes’ team has an anthrax bacteria bomb dropped from an airplane onto Gruinard. Although it lodges in a bog and does not infect any sheep, a similar test is more successfully repeated a month later on a beach in Wales.
November 1942 : Fildes arrives in Washington to meet with officials. Recognising U.S. superiority in mass production, he asks for American help in making biological weapons. Fildes’ first request is for seven pounds of botulinum toxin (code named “Agent X”), which is a proteinaceous substance produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Later that month, Ira Baldwin, now a professor and head of the bacteriology department at the University of Wisconsin, receives a call from Colonel William Kabrich of the US Army Chemical Warfare Service. Kabrich asks Baldwin to attend a meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington. Once there, Baldwin and other scientists are sworn to secrecy and then asked whether they believe that the U.S. can produce mass quantities of biological agents. The medical biologists present were generally skeptical : Either you couldn’t produce the microorganisms in large amounts, or you couldn’t culture them safely.
Baldwin, experienced at working with fermentation in breweries, disagreed. If you can do it in a test tube, you can do it with a 10,000-gallon tank, with equal safety and perhaps more, he later recalled saying. All you have to do is make the same conditions in a 10,000-gallon tank that you make in a test tube. 10 days later Kabrich asks him to head up the program.
Baldwin was the grandson of a Methodist minister, and as a youth he had filled in as preacher at small country churches. Now the colonel was asking him to produce microbes that could kill great numbers of human beings. He made his decision within a day. I think there is no question that the idea of using biological agents to kill people represented a complete shift of thinking, he later said in an interview. But it only took me about 24 hours to think my way through it. After all, the immorality of war is war itself. You start out with the idea in war of killing people, and that to me is the immoral part of it. It doesn’t make much difference how you kill them. More
February 1943 : Baldwin locates a site for his work at a little-used National Guard airfield in Frederick, Maryland, that becomes known as Camp Detrick. The Army officially takes it over in March and staff members begin arriving in April. The Army also acquires Horn Island, ret research. Scientists completed interior equipment installation; the boiler was operated by Alex Bryant, then a soldier.
May 1943 : Workers erect a two-story building dubbed “Black Maria” at Camp Detrick. The next month, a group of scientists led by Harvard bacteriologist Alwin Pappenheimer begin work there on filling Fildes’ request for seven pounds of Clostridium botulinum. Within two months, they have succeeded. Later that year, construction begins on two pilot plants for larger-scale production of biological agents.
January 9, 1946 : A Deal with Ishii
The U.S. demands that the Japanese government produce Ishii, who is in fact alive; he is handed over to American forces eight days later.
January 22, 1946, : Another Camp Detrick operative, Lieutenant Colonel Arvo Thompson, begins interrogating Ishii, who lies repeatedly about his wartime activities. Thompson does not press him, but returns to America and writes up a report.
December 1948 : At Fildes’ suggestion, the British begin three months of biological testing near the tropical island of Antigua.
1953 : In the St Jo Program, operatives stage mock anthrax attacks on St. Louis, Minneapolis, and Winnipeg, releasing simulant bacteria from aerosol generators placed on top of cars. The Air Force officially adopts a plan for use of Brucella bombs in warfare, and a plant for producing the bacteria is completed in Pine Bluff, Arkansas.
January 25, 1955 : The Army Sickens Informed Volunteers
Camp Detrick scientists begin studying the effects of biological agents on human volunteers. The recruits for “Operation Whitecoat,” which will continue for the next 18 years and involve some 2,200 people, are Seventh-Day Adventists whose beliefs forbid the bearing of arms but who are willing to serve the military in non-combatant, often medical roles.
February 3, 1956, : Now a permanent institution, “Camp Detrick” is renamed “Fort Detrick.”
1959 : Shiro Ishii dies, never having to answer for his war crimes. Other leading Japanese biological warfare scientists with responsibility for heinous crimes lead successful professional lives as industry leaders and academics.
February 5, 1971, : Sir Paul Fildes dies.
Sir Paul Gordon Fildes
Son of noted painter Samuel Luke Fildes who illustrated the last book by Charles Dickens.
Paul Fildes was born in 1882 in London. As a young schoolboy he already displayed a scientific bent, even drafting a paper on “The passage of food to the stomach.” Although he entered medical school in 1904 with the intent of focusing on surgery, Fildes soon moved into bacteriology.
After working in a Royal Navy hospital, he joined Great Britain’s Medical Research Council and became head of its Bacterial Chemistry Unit, editing a nine-volume treatise on the field. In 1940, with Britain at war with Nazi Germany, a new biology department was established at Porton Down, a secret British facility near Salisbury that had been established in 1916 to deal with the threat of chemical weapons.
Fildes became the head of this department and began conducting research into offensive biological weapons. One early project, dubbed “Operation Vegetarian,” investigated the practicality of dropping linseed cakes containing anthrax bacterial spores over Germany that would kill any cattle that ate them.
Although Fildes ordered the production of five million of these cakes, they were never used. Fildes would later claim he participated in another biological warfare project that did go forward.
In May 1942 there was an assassination by the British Secret Service of high-ranking Nazi leader Reinhard Heydrich near Prague. Heydrich was ambushed and later died of what had appeared to be minor wounds. Although his claims could not be substantiated, Fildes later said he “had a hand” in Heydrich’s death, possibly by supplying the assassins with grenades containing botulinum toxin that were used in the attack.
As Fildes’ anthrax experiments continued, he sensed the need for testing beyond that which could be conducted near a populated area like Salisbury. In the summer of 1942, Fildes and his colleagues settled on Gruinard Island, a remote 522-acre island off Scotland’s northwest coast, as a field test site. After the military had bought the island and declared it off-limits, Fildes’ team prepared it to become Great Britain’s first outdoor biological weapons test site.
On July 15, they dropped a bomb filled with anthrax bacterial spores from a six-foot wooden gallows about a hundred yards upwind from a group of 15 sheep, each of whom had been placed in crates with openings for their necks. The sheep began to present with symptoms of anthrax three days after the test; 13 of the animals eventually perished. Another similar test was successfully conducted on July 24. Some months later, on September 26, an airplane dropped a bomb filled with anthrax bacterial spores onto the island, but the bomb became lodged in a bog and thus none of its payload was released. Fildes’ team then repeated that experiment a month later on a beach in Wales and this time it went off without a hitch. The British now became convinced that they could make anthrax bombs work, but realised they needed help with the large-scale production of anthrax bacteria. For this they sought America’s help.
Turning to America
Researcher works in one of several size aerobiology chambers developed at Camp Detrick for work on microbial aerosols and the spread of disease. The Americans had been slower to investigate biological weapons than the British, but in terms of industrial capacity, they had no peer. In November 1942, Fildes and a colleague arrived in Washington, where they requested that the United States set up production facilities sufficient to produce large amounts of anthrax bacterial spores (called “Agent N”) and botulinum toxin (“Agent X”). Their initial order was for seven pounds of Agent X, and an American team overseen by Ira Baldwin at Camp Detrick began working on this in June 1943. They were able to fulfil this order within a couple of months.
Malcolm Broster, of the Ministry of Defense Chemical Defense Establishment at Porton Down, alongside one of the warning signs at Gruinard Island, which has been sealed-off from the public for almost 45 years. 1986. Not everyone on the British side approved of the mass production of biological weapons; for example, when they learned of Fildes’ activities, two members of the Biological Warfare Committee that oversaw Porton Down raised strenuous objections. But they were overruled by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who in March 1944 ordered 500,000 anthrax bombs from America.
That summer Fildes drew up plans for massive anthrax bombing raids of Germany, including the resumption of Operation Vegetarian. Although Allied military victory ended the war in Europe before any of these operations were conducted, Fildes continued his research and development program and was rewarded for his services with knighthood in 1946. He carried out open-sea testing of weapons during the winter of 1948-49 near the British colony of Antigua. With the rise of British nuclear capacity during the 1950s, interest in offensive biological weapons lessened, and eventually Fildes left Porton Down.
He died a year before the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention that banned offensive biological weapons came into being. Gruinard Island remained contaminated until 1986, when British scientists finally found a way to kill the bacterial spores that had been infesting “Anthrax Island” since Fildes’ tests more than 40 years earlier.
The Death of Frank Olson
In the early morning hours of November 28, 1953, Frank Olson, a bacteriologist and biological warfare specialist out of Fort Detrick (then called Camp Detrick) and deployed into the MKUltra project by way of the TSS, plunged from the thirteenth floor of the Hotel Statler splattering on the pavement below like a bug on a car windshield.
He was under the supervision of his TSS Deputy Director Robert Lashbrook, who was the only one in the room when local authorities arrived. He had been sharing the room with Olson.
Lashbrook claimed to have been sleeping when Olson took the plunge.
Olson, as the story would eventually turn out, had been slipped some LSD by then TSS Director Gottlieb at a meeting in a Maryland farmhouse nine days earlier. Olson suffered a nervous breakdown. Absurdly enough Lashbrook then took him to New York City to get treatment from Dr. Harold Abramson, an allergist and paediatrician, who worked for the CIA…
Not at all surprisingly the death was ruled a suicide.
When the incident was brought to public attention by the Rockefeller Commission in seventy-five, perhaps as a compensatory exercise, Olson’s family was invited to the White House for a personal apology from President Ford and given 750,000 dollars, the maximum amount allowable under United States law.
The cash wasn’t good enough for Olson’s son who in the mid-nineties, after his mother died, had his father’s body exhumed and autopsied. The autopsy was performed by Dr. James Starrs, Professor of Law and Forensic Science at The National Law Centre, George Washington University. Contrary to the original medical report, Starrs found no cuts and abrasions on the body as would have been caused by diving through a window.
What Starrs did find was a hematoma on the left side of Olson’s skull which he speculated was caused by a hammer, the same hammer that would have been used to break the window in preparation for Olson’s early morning flying lesson. He concluded that the forensics were “rankly and starkly suggestive of homicide.”
Olson got his Ph.D. in Bacteriology in 1938 by way of the University of Wisconsin (UW). Afterwards he served as a captain in the Army Chemical Corps. Those who now serve in the Chemical Corps are called Dragon Soldiers. The new regimental insignia is emblazoned with the Latin motto Elementis Regamus Proelium: “Let us rule the battle by means of the elements.”
By 1943, Olson was a civilian. It was as a civilian that he was recruited by Ira Baldwin to work in the Army Biological Warfare Laboratories at Camp Detrick. Baldwin had been Olson’s departmental advisor at UW and was working closely with the military and George W. Merck to establish a top secret biological weapons program for America.
Merck, an alumnus of Harvard, was the son and heir of Friedrike Merck who emigrated from Germany in 1891 to establish E. Merck and Company on 62 Wall Street. Before WWI, E. Merck and Company was a subsidiary of the German chemical colossus Merck KGaA. After ten years Olson was the Army Biological Warfare Laboratories senior bacteriologist. Sometime during all this he became an employee of the CIA in the TSS.
From 1950 to fifty-three, Olson had been commuting regularly to England, collaborating with British microbiologists under Sir Paul Fildes at Porton Down. Near Salisbury in Wiltshire, Porton Down is England’s real life answer to fictions Frankenstein’s Castle. There the empire’s homegrown mad scientists played with their newest toys acquired as dividends from the Third Reich in the aftermath of WWII. Among this treasure of horrors was; tabun, sarin and soman; at the time the most lethal nerve agents known to man.
The story of Frank Olson becomes important in the profile of Sir Paul Fildes because during his time at Porton Down, Olson witnessed the British carry out what the CIA called terminal experiments. It was from this experience and others in Germany, and his speaking of his experiences, that put Frank Olson on the endangered list.
In at least one known case the scientists murdered one of their own soldiers, an unwitting volunteer who thought he was participating in research to cure the common cold. According to witnesses, he died horribly frothing at the mouth and contorting in agony like a slug doused with salt. They were attempting to ascertain just how much of the German nerve agents it would take to kill a man…
Olson reported the disturbing impressions left on him by what he had seen at Porton Down to Harley Street psychiatrist; Dr. William Sargant, the finest psychiatrist in all England. Of course Sargant was also under the auspices of British Intelligence. Sargant, in his capacity as an operative for MI 6, dutifully assessed Olson as a security risk right then and there.
Sometime in the summer of fifty-three Olson took one of his frequent trips to Germany. What he saw there changed him, spooked him real bad… the people who knew him said he was a changed man when he got back to England. He could no longer go on in the capacity of senior bacteriologist in the MKUltra Program. He went back to Sargant and told him he wanted out of the CIA. Sargant, ever the loyal soldier of empire, immediately reported Olson to his MI 6 handler.
Olson, obviously not a diplomat, had been issued a diplomatic passport back in April of 1950. This enabled him to carry pouches that were not subject to customs searches. It has recently been insinuated by Annie Jacobsen in her book, Operation Paperclip, that Olson had been taking full advantage “flying to Frankfurt and making the short drive out to Camp King.”
There, according to documents obtained through the FOIA and interviews with Olson’s former partner Norman Cournoyer, Olson as an agent of empire used “unconventional interrogation techniques on Soviet prisoners.”
It has always been assumed, because the CIA has always insinuated, that Olson was using mind altering drugs in terminal experiments on Soviet spies captured by the Gehlen Organisation the forerunner and progenitor of Germany’s federal intelligence agency Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND). But Olson would have been acting under the instructions of the former Deputy Surgeon General of the Third Reich; the notorious Dr. Kurt Blome. Blome’s war time field of expertise was well known to be bacteriology.
Over and over again in what has become the academically orthodox lore of MKUltra there is the repetitive theme of “Acid Dreams.” Its well documented that LSD was used at Camp King but there were other far more nefarious and terrible things taking place there and being transplanted back into the empire by the personnel of Porton Down, Fort Detrick and Edgewood…
Olson was a bacteriologist, the senior one in the program. If anybody was dosing anybody with LSD at that high a level for the CIA at that time it would have been Puharich, their premier expert on those matters. By early 1953, Puharich had been “redrafted,” after presenting a paper to the Pentagon about clairvoyance on behalf of Essentia Research Associates. He was serving at the rank of Captain out of the Army Chemical Center in Edgewood in Maryland.
Great Britain’s Ministry of Defense (MoD) had unleashed the madmen of Porton Down right into their own living room.
One sixty page report alone issued at the turn of the twenty-first century lists a hundred such attacks — always euphemistically called experiments — by the MoD on British citizens. In the Fluorescent Particle
Trials from 1955 to 1963 residents of Cornwall were bombed by air and Somerset sprayed by truck, like mosquitoes, with zinc cadmium sulphide, a known cause of lung cancer.
At the same time the British were carrying on the Fluorescent Particle Trials, America was performing the Large Area Coverage ‘experiments’ known as Operation LAC and carried out from the end of 1957 into 1958.
This time the Army Chemical Corps used a C119 or flying boxcar borrowed from the air force to make repetitive runs over America’s heartland, saturating most of the US and a good part of Canada with zinc cadmium sulphide.
From 1961 to 1968 during England’s Large Area Coverage Trials, more than a million people along the South coast of England, from Torquay to the New Forest, were attacked by sea with e.coli and bacillus globigii, said to be mimics of anthrax. In a joint effort with their American counterparts British scientists sprayed the hapless residents of South Dorset from 1971-1975 with “massive quantities of serratia marcescens.”
There is every reason to believe Blome’s little pet was also the bacterium of choice in The Sabotage Trials, which took place from fifty-two to sixty-four. On the flimsiest of excuses, again to check target vulnerability, government buildings and the London subway system including the one under Whitehall were targeted and attacked with bacterial ‘markers’ by the lunatics from Porton Down.
The few in the West that are aware of America and England’s environmental modifications in the thirty years following WW II and are not clinically insane are being told Serratia marcescens produces a bright reddish-orange tripyrrole pigment called Prodigiosin, which makes it easy to track when used as a marker in bacteriological warfare tests. Most of the literature available to the public tells them that prior to the fifties, S marcescens was considered a harmless nonpathogenic “saprophyte.”
The army has destroyed all records of what it was doing at Fort Detrick from 1942–1955 and anybody who could say is conveniently dead. But a note found in the archive of Baldwin’s papers, dated February 19, 1943, contained an order from a Dr. Fildes for a batch of B. subtilis spores. Sir Paul Fildes was the lead bacteriologist in the British Biological Weapons program.
The empires original bacteria of choice was apparently B. subtilis var. niger, what they were calling “red strain.” This is just a misnomer in the taxonomic classification, perhaps deliberate. The name of the bacteria is most appropriately B. atrophaeus var. globigii, the closest known relative of Bacillus subtilis.
B subtilis is also called grass bacillus because it is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants like cattle; an animal that in America for the last fifty years has been turning up with alarming frequency dead and surgically mutilated. Nobody has ever been caught doing it and the animals usually have their blood, various internal organs and their anuses removed…
B subtilis is referred to by Wikipedia as “one of the bacterial champions in secreted enzyme production.” Outside a barrage of extremely complicated microbiology tests and the fact that it will not readily swap DNA with it, the ‘military strain’ can only be distinguished from B. subtilis by its black colour, reminiscent of the sentient “oil” in the X. Files…
In lieu of the facts information available to the public would have them believe that the empire was searching for a suitable bacterium to be used as a marker for Bacillus anthracis so they could run field experiments. Nothing could be more absurd.
B anthracis is a pop gun. It was used by the Japanese against the Chinese in Manchuria during the Thirties and early Forties with little to no effect. It is deadly to animals, not humans. Just like Blome, whom they were exchanging information with, the Japanese found the plague to be far more effective.
By 1944, B anthraces could already be treated with Penicillin. In fact Fildes had done live testing with it on the island of Gruinard, located off the Northwest coast of Scotland, in forty-two and forty-three. He had five million cattle cakes laced with B anthracis and ready to be dropped on Germany. It was estimated the cakes would kill 30% of Germany’s cattle.
 Dowling, Kevin. Knightley, Phillip. “A secret that could destroy the CIA.” The London Mail. . (Aug 23, 1998.):. Web
 Albarelli, H. P. . “A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA’s Secret Cold War ….” District Attorney Robert Morgenthau Investigation. (2009): Chapter 3. Web.
 Ignatieff, Michael (April 1, 2001). “What did the C.I.A. do to Eric Olson’s father?”. The New York Times Magazine.
 “CIA Secret Experiments: National Geographic Documentary: 6:00-7:17.” Youtube. Web. 10/2/2015.
 Ibid: 10:00-13:23
 Ibid: 13:23-14:27
 Ibid: 21:50-22:44
 Jacobson, Annie. “What Cold War CIA Interrogators Learned from the Nazis.” The Daily Beast. (2/11/14): . Web.
 Lee, M. A., Shlain, B. (1985). Acid Dreams, the Complete Social History of LSD: the CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond. Grove Press.
 Barnett, Antony. “Millions were in germ war tests.” The Guardian. Politics (Sunday 21 April 2002 05.23 EDT): Web.
 Cole, Leonard A.. “Operation LAC and Zinc Cadmium Sulphide.” The Eleventh Plague . 1997: Chapter 2 pages 19-28. Web.
 Barnett, Antony. “Millions were in germ war tests.”
 J Anía, MD, Basilio. “Serratia.” Medscape . (Oct 21, 2014): Web.
 Gibbons, Henry. “Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant.” (25 Mar 2011): Results (Historical investigations of BG provenance). Web.
 Ibid, Bioinformatic analysis of sequence data.
 Bergman , Nicholas H. (editor). “CHALENGES TO THE NORM.” Bacillus anthracis and Anthrax . (2011): Web.
 CDC. “A History of Anthrax.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (September 1, 2015): . Web.
 Spencer, RC. “Bacillus anthracis.” National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine . J Clin Pathol. 2003 Mar; 56(3): 182–187. . (2003): Web.