23 January 2020 : 02:04am
The headlines strewn across TV land are claiming :
“The new mystery virus in China is adapting and mutating and no known drug works against it.”
The symptoms they claim are respiratory symptoms, fever, coughs, shortness of breath, difficulties in breathing, and add, but those symptoms could also mean you have caught a common cold or the flu.
Given the timing as China prepares for the New Year, it looks like they are attempting to shut down China under Martial Law. Given the current tensions in the Middle East, China could be preparing for war, either in a defensive stand or possibly an offensive move. Not forgetting militaries are also preparing for the coming financial crash with the aim to take full control over the populations as the severity of it begins to take hold. From the propaganda coming out of China we are perhaps witnessing the Chinese setting the script under which all nations will act as the World Health Organisation crus pandemic. China is thus setting the precedent of action by all private security forces. Insight
It is being reported that Wuhan is the testing ground for the activation of the 5G grid which according to some researchers has the capacity to suppress the immune system of the body. If this turns out to be correct, then it is possible the virus is a cover for the effects of the 5G immunity suppressant being tested in Wuhan.
The term Corona describes the field around high electrical voltage. Lightning is seen when a breech of the Corona Field takes place.
Corona radiation kills most high voltage electricians before the age of 55. Corona damages the reproductive cells in the liver, causes sterility, miscarriages and infertility. Corona is best described as the EMF field generated by high voltage transmission.
Like with most illness, have they just incorporated the term Corona and virus? This would hide the real cause, wi-fi radiation, and have you treat the symptoms as if viral, allowing the likes of Bill Gates to make billions on a vaccine that can only create yet more illness in the side effects with the cause ignored and protected.
Back in February of 2017, Nature put out this story titled “Inside the Chinese lab poised to study world’s most dangerous pathogens Maximum-security biolab is part of plan to build network of BSL-4 facilities across China”. That research lab is in Wuhan, China. Just a coincidence this is all happening now?
A laboratory in Wuhan is on the cusp of being cleared to work with the world’s most dangerous pathogens. The move is part of a plan to build between five and seven biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) labs across the Chinese mainland by 2025, and has generated much excitement, as well as some concerns.
Some scientists outside China worry about pathogens escaping, and the addition of a biological dimension to geopolitical tensions between China and other nations. But Chinese microbiologists are celebrating their entrance to the elite cadre empowered to wrestle with the world’s greatest biological threats.
One family known to be involved in the weaponisation of pharmaceuticals is the Hoffman-La Roche family of Switzerland who are alchemists involved in chemical warfare on society. Roche Applied Science a division of Hoffman-La Roche researches molecular genetics and cell biology which they use for weaponising their pharmaceuticals. Fritz Hoffmann-La Roche was the founder of the company. His grandson who died in 2015 was Luc Hoffman and he was a French Knight of the Legion of Honour and his son Andre Hoffmann is the current head of Hoffmann-La Roche.
The Rocco and Roche families are a military bloodline of France, Switzerland, Italy, and the UK. These clans likely originate from the Petreia gentile clan of ancient Rome which was involved in the military. The Rochefoucauld, Rochechouart, Roche, and Rocco families all have similar origins. The Latin word Petra means rock as Roche is a French word for rock and Rocca is an Italian word for rock and also refers to a fortress. These clans are evil, militant, and stubborn. In France there are the ancient Rochefoucauld and Rochechouart families which are both about a 1000 years old. Both families have been involved with the military and the Holy See. The Rochefoucauld family is very large with various family branches. The House of Rochechouart were involved with the Crusades, Hundred Years War, and the Napoleonic Wars. Marquis Aimery de Rochechouart is a top member of this family and Duke Charles-Emmanuel de Rochechouart the 16th Duke of Mortemart is the head of this nobility.
In the early days of the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak, Chinese officials arrested citizens they accused of spreading rumours about the illness online. Journalists have also reported being detained and threatened by Chinese authorities while covering the outbreak. Experts are now faulting the Chinese government for its harsh crackdown on the flow of information about the virus.
Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.
As the Wuhan coronavirus death toll rose to at least 18 on Thursday, the Chinese government is facing questions over its vice grip on the flow of information in the early days of the outbreak.
In early January, the Wuhan police said they had arrested eight people accused of spreading “rumours” about what was then a mysterious pneumonia causing serious complications in patients.
When the coronavirus made national headlines, more and more journalists began to describe being detained or threatened with arrest by Chinese authorities while reporting on the outbreak.
The Wuhan outbreak immediately harked back to the SARS epidemic in the early 2000s, which the Chinese government tried to cover up. The two viruses are in the same family, which also includes the common cold and pneumonia, but Wuhan so far is much milder than SARS.
While the government was almost immediately forthcoming with the international community about this outbreak, its actions in suppressing information at home have left some experts concerned that it made the situation worse than it might have been.
Recent reports that Bill Gates has helped fund research into this latest strain, has been declared false by the Pirbright Institute which coincidentally it has been reported that Bill Gates not long ago made a $5.5 million donation to the institute.
Pirbright patent : https://patents.google.com/patent/EP3172319B1/en/
Henry de Worms 1st baron Pirbright (A Jewish man) was born on 20 October 1840. His father, Solomon Benedict de Worms (1801–1882), owned large plantations in Ceylon and was made a Hereditary Baron of the Austrian Empire by Franz Joseph I of Austria (1830–1916). His mother was Henrietta Samuel. His siblings were Anthony Mayer de Worms (1830–1864), Ellen Henrietta de Worms (born 1836), and George de Worms, 2nd Baron de Worms (1829–1902).
Henry de Worms was given Austrian Titles by the House Hapsburg which were accepted by Rothschild sired Queen Victoria allowing him to be accepted into British aristocracy and work with Henry Wellcome.
His paternal grandmother was Schönche Jeannette Rothschild (1771–1859), thus his paternal great-grandfather was Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812), the founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty. As a result, his paternal great-granduncles were Amschel Mayer Rothschild (1773–1855), Salomon Mayer von Rothschild (1774–1855), Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777–1836), Carl Mayer von Rothschild (1788–1855), and James Mayer de Rothschild (1792–1868). His uncles, who owned plantations in Ceylon with his father, were Maurice Benedict de Worms (1805–1867) and Gabriel Benedict de Worms (1802–1881).
He was educated at King’s College London. He was called to the Bar, Inner Temple, in 1863, and became a fellow of King’s College in the same year.
Henry de Worms was heavily involved with the second Boar War specifically within the concentration camps they set up in which he and others Henry Solomon Wellcome, tested various plant and chemical compounds to create disease. Along with the Welcome Trust, Pirbright experimented on the German/Dutch Boar’s to kick start the pharmaceutical industry to break the human body. This was achieved in the formation of the South Africa Company.
The Wellcome Trust is a research charity based in London, United Kingdom. It was established in 1936 with legacies from the pharmaceutical magnate Sir Henry Wellcome to fund research to improve human and animal health. The aim of the Trust is to “achieve extraordinary improvements in health by supporting the brightest minds”, and in addition to funding biomedical research it supports the public understanding of science. It had a financial endowment of £25.9 billion in 2018, making it the fourth wealthiest charitable foundation in the world, after the American Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Danish Novo Nordisk Foundation and the Dutch INGKA Foundation (related to the IKEA company).
 Epstein, Mortimer (1912). “De Worms, Henry” . Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.
 Henry Samuel Morais (1880). Eminent Israelites of the nineteenth century: A series of biographical sketches. Philadelphia: Edward Stern & Co. pp. 357–360. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
QinetiQ covers Q from James Bond it also includes Q clearance and QAnon and Marconi through the BBC. Coming under the umbrella of QinetiQ we find Serco, the hub controlling all private security including all militaries who take an oath to the fiction QEII. Five Eyes is also fed into QinetiQ so too the Carlyle Group which purchased a huge share in QinetiQ which explains exactly who former prime minister John Major acted for, he joined the Carlyle Group the moment he left office, this is also the case for George W Bush. Take note of the fact, de Worms was a member of the Inner Temple as is the woman holding the office of monarch Elizabeth Alexandria Mary Windsor. This shows that the financiers hold control over the British Crown (monarch) through the Inner Temple. Elizabeth Windsor is said to own 20 percent of QinetiQ which means the Inner Temple has it. Through the Privy Council has the Inner Temple tied all things to itself through the incorporation of the State.
Serco is a Crown Agent spider through which the Senior Executive Service of the Crown, 10.000 personnel strong, determines who and what get the contracts won to operate the domestic infrastructure of nations Serco is operating. The Senior Executive Service takes its orders from the Senior Executive Association. The Senior Executive Association is therefore the public head of the secret corporate government in all nations in which it operates. Through the issuance of domestic outsource contracts the Senior Executive Service is the facilitator for the private banking cartel to siphon all monies out of the nations and into the banking system.
The Crown Agents in most cases are also members of the Knights of Malta, this can be seen in all royal regalia adorned by the aristocrats that operate for the Temple. The Knights of Malta however, were subdued by the Jesuits in 1798 aided by Napoleon Bonaparte, and thus everything the Crown carries out is so for the Holy See which ultimately controls the Vatican through total infiltration of all the high offices’, before it was sealed in contract in 1929 under Mussolini.
Current Lords sitting who are also members of the Inner Temple :
Baroness Clark of Calton
Lord Collins of Mapesbury
From 1888 until 1915 Britain saw a huge influx of Russian operatives who claimed to be Jewish, this also took place in the United States. From the genocide of all the males in World War I did allow the immigrants from the Russian Pogroms to take the high levels of Freemasonry throughout the western nations. From this event did Freemasonry shift from the upkeep of the Church of England to the upkeep and protection of the Zionist Israel. The 21st Degree Freemasonry is named the Noahide Judge, it is this level of Masonry that will judge all the gentiles in their own nations according to the Noahide Law platform. Since Ronald Reagan, every president of the United States, including Trump, have signed into law the Noahide platform over the United States.
Full Interview : https://vimeo.com/392798558
If that does not trigger, then read this :
Disclosed herein is a newly isolated human coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Also provided are the nucleic acid sequence of the SARS-CoV genome and the amino acid sequences of the SARS-CoV open reading frames, as well as methods of using these molecules to detect a SARS-CoV and detect infections therewith. Immune stimulatory compositions are also provided, along with methods of their use.
Application US10/822,904 events
2003-04-25 – Priority to US46592703P
2004-04-12 – Application filed by Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (Department of Health and Human Services)
2004-04-12 – Priority to US10/822,904
2007-05-22 – Application granted
2007-05-22 – Publication of US7220852B1
2007-06-28 – Assigned to THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION
2020-01-22 – Application status is Expired – Fee Related
2024-04-12 – Anticipated expiration
Info : Patent citations (3) Non-patent citations (16) Cited by (8) Legal events Similar documents Priority and Related Applications External links : USPTO, USPTO Assignment Espacenet Global Dossier Discuss
Coronavirus is a Patented Virus
Below is a quick list of patents which deal with this ‘new’ coronavirus. There is a pretty recent patent as of July 4th, 2019 with this coronavirus. We know how most of these viruses are lab created and this provides some more reach or information to research.
• CORONAVIRUS PROTEINS AND ANTIGENS Publication number: 20160339097 Abstract: Disclosed herein are embodiments of a method for collecting, extracting or eluting proteins and antigens from cells infected with coronavirus. The coronavirus may be a porcine coronavirus, such as porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) or porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV). Also disclosed are embodiments of a composition comprising the coronavirus proteins and antigens, and embodiments of a method of using such a composition. Applications for the composition include, but are not limited to, use in the preparation of antibodies against the proteins and antigens, use as reference markers for coronavirus proteins, and/or use in an immunogenic composition, such as in a vaccine composition. Type: Application Filed: August 4, 2016 Publication date: November 24, 2016 Applicant: MJ Biologics, Inc. Inventor: Byoung-Kwan Kim
• CORONAVIRUS PROTEINS AND ANTIGENS Publication number: 20190202868 Abstract: Disclosed herein are embodiments of a method for collecting, extracting or eluting proteins and antigens from cells infected with coronavirus. The coronavirus may be a porcine coronavirus, such as porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) or porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV). Also disclosed are embodiments of a composition comprising the coronavirus proteins and antigens, and embodiments of a method of using such a composition. Applications for the composition include, but are not limited to, use in the preparation of antibodies against the proteins and antigens, use as reference markers for coronavirus proteins, and/or use in an immunogenic composition, such as in a vaccine composition. Type: Application Filed: March 15, 2019 Publication date: July 4, 2019 Applicant: Phibro Animal Health Corporation Inventor: Byoung-Kwan Kim
• Coronavirus proteins and antigens Patent number: 10280199 Abstract: Disclosed herein are embodiments of a method for collecting, extracting or eluting proteins and antigens from cells infected with coronavirus. The coronavirus may be a porcine coronavirus, such as porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) or porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV). Also disclosed are embodiments of a composition comprising the coronavirus proteins and antigens, and embodiments of a method of using such a composition. Applications for the composition include, but are not limited to, use in the preparation of antibodies against the proteins and antigens, use as reference markers for coronavirus proteins, and/or use in an immunogenic composition, such as in a vaccine composition. Type: Grant Filed: August 4, 2016 Date of Patent: May 7, 2019 Assignee: Phibro Animal Health Corporation Inventor: Byoung-Kwan Kim
• Vaccine compositions and methods of treating coronavirus infection Publication number: 20060286124 Abstract: The present disclosure relates to compositions and methods for treating or preventing coronavirus infections. For example, compositions are provided that comprise a coronavirus S protein or N protein, fragment, or variant thereof, capable of eliciting a protective humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response, which compositions are useful for treating or preventing infection by coronavirus, such as the causative agent of SARS. Also, coronavirus S protein and N protein immunogen compositions are provided that include an adjuvant, such as Proteosome or Protollin, which may be used for treating or preventing infection caused by a coronavirus, such as a SARS coronavirus. Type: Application Filed: June 30, 2005 Publication date: December 21, 2006 Applicant: ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec Inventors: David Burt, Mark Reddish, Mary Hu, George Lowell, David Jones
• Uncharacterised ORF3 in SARS-coronavirus is a cyclic-AMP-dependent kinase and a target for SARS therapy Publication number: 20050276818 Abstract: The present invention relates to novel methods for identifying antiviral agents which selectively interfere with viral proteins that cause the unique infectivity activity of the SARS-coronavirus in comparison to other non-SARS strains of coronavirus. In particular, the present invention relates to screening assays that identify agents which selectively inhibit cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase activity of the SARS-coronavirus ORF3. The present invention also relates to screening assays that identify agents which selectively inhibit the interaction between SARS-coronavirus cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase and a calcium dependent targeting molecule. Therefore the agents identified using the assays of the invention may have utility as antiviral agents. The present invention also relates to treatments for sever acute respiratory syndrome caused by a coronavirus, and particularly to treatments that affect the infectivity activity of the SARS-coronavirus. Type: Application Filed: May 17, 2005 Publication date: December 15, 2005 Inventors: Adam Godzik, Sergey Sikora
• Uncharacterised ORF3 in SARS-coronavirus is a cyclic-AMP-dependent kinase and a target for SARS therapy Patent number: 7504205 Abstract: The present invention relates to novel methods for identifying antiviral agents which selectively interfere with viral proteins that cause the unique infectivity activity of the SARS-coronavirus in comparison to other non-SARS strains of coronavirus. In particular, the present invention relates to screening assays that identify agents which selectively inhibit cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase activity of the SARS-coronavirus ORF3. The present invention also relates to screening assays that identify agents which selectively inhibit the interaction between SARS-coronavirus cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase and a calcium dependent targeting molecule. Therefore the agents identified using the assays of the invention may have utility as antiviral agents. The present invention also relates to treatments for sever acute respiratory syndrome caused by a coronavirus, and particularly to treatments that affect the infectivity activity of the SARS-coronavirus. Type: Grant Filed: May 17, 2005 Date of Patent: March 17, 2009 Assignee: The Burnham Institute Inventors: Adam Godzik, Sergey Sikora
• Inactivated canine coronavirus vaccine Patent number: 4567042 Abstract: An efficacious parenterally administered inactivated canine coronavirus vaccine which provides systemic, humoral protection and also protection of the intestinal tract in dogs from infection by virulent canine coronavirus is produced. A method for propagation of the canine coronavirus and its attenuation and a method of evaluating the effectiveness of a canine coronavirus vaccine in canines is also disclosed. Type: Grant Filed: June 7, 1984 Date of Patent: January 28, 1986 Assignee: American Home Products Corporation Inventors: William M. Acree, Bobby Edwards, John W. Black
• CANINE RESPIRATORY CORONAVIRUS (CRCV) SPIKE PROTEIN, POLYMERASE AND HEMAGGLUTININ/ESTERASE Publication number: 20090081780 Abstract: A canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCV) that is present in the respiratory tract of dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease and which has a low level of homology to the enteric canine coronavirus, but which has a high level of homology to all bovine coronavirus strains (e.g., Quebec and LY138) and human coronavirus strain OC43. Type: Application Filed: September 26, 2008 Publication date: March 26, 2009 Applicant: The Royal Veterinary College Inventors: John Brownlie, Victoria Jane Chalker, Kerstin Erles
• PEPTIDE COMPOUNDS FOR DETECTING OR INHIBITING SARS CORONAVIRUS AND APPLICATION THEREOF Publication number: 20100304363 Abstract: Disclosed herein are peptide compounds and the application thereof to the detection and inhibition of SARS coronavirus. Composed of dipeptides, the compounds for detecting and inhibiting SARS coronavirus can be readily synthesised and produced at low cost. In addition, they can be stored safely for a long period of time. The dipeptide compounds are useful as inhibitors of SARS coronavirus as well as acting as excellent capturing materials of SARS coronavirus. Type: Application Filed: May 26, 2010 Publication date: December 2, 2010 Applicant: ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE Inventors: Soo-Hyung LEE, Hyo-Bong Hong, Tao-Wan Kim, Myung-Ae Chung, Sung-Woo Sohn, Seoung-Min Yoo
• Canine Respiratory Coronavirus (Crcv) Spike Protein, Polymerase and Hemagglutinin/Esterase Publication number: 20070248616 Abstract: A canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCV) that is present in the respiratory tract of dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease and which has a low level of homology to the enteric canine coronavirus, but which has a high level of homology to all bovine coronavirus strains (e.g. Quebec and LY138) and human coronavirus strain OC43. The CRCV spike, polymerase and hemagglutinin/esterase cDNA and protein partial sequences are listed in FIGS. (1) to (4), (13) and (14). Type: Application Filed: July 1, 2003 Publication date: October 25, 2007 Inventors: John Brownlie, Victoria Chalker, Kerstin Erles
• Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCV) spike protein Patent number: 7981427 Abstract: A canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCV) that is present in the respiratory tract of dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease and which has a low level of homology to the enteric canine coronavirus, but which has a high level of homology to all bovine coronavirus strains (e.g., Quebec and LY138) and human coronavirus strain OC43. Type: Grant Filed: September 26, 2008 Date of Patent: July 19, 2011 Assignee: The Royal Veterinary College Inventors: John Brownlie, Victoria Jane Chalker, Kerstin Erles
• Methods and compositions for infectious cDNA of SARS coronavirus Publication number: 20060240530 Abstract: The present invention provides a cDNA of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, recombinant SARS coronavirus vectors, and SARS coronavirus replicon particles. Also provided are methods of making the compositions of this invention and methods of using the compositions as immunogens and/or vaccines and/or to express heterologous nucleic acids. Type: Application Filed: January 19, 2006 Publication date: October 26, 2006 Inventors: Ralph Baric, Rhonda Roberts, Boyd Yount, Kristopher Curtis
• Compositions and methods for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus Publication number: 20050095582 Abstract: The invention provides compositions and methods for detecting the presence of SARS-coronavirus, for screening anti-SARS coronavirus agents and vaccines, and for reducing infection with plus-strand RNA viruses such as SARS-coronavirus. Type: Application Filed: November 3, 2003 Publication date: May 5, 2005 Applicants: Diagnostic Hybrids, Inc., Health Research Incorporated Inventors: Laura Gillim-Ross, Jill Taylor, David Scholl, David Wentworth, Joseph Jollick Compositions and Methods for Detecting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Publication number: 20080076115 Abstract: The invention provides compositions and methods for detecting the presence of SARS-coronavirus, for screening anti-SARS coronavirus agents and vaccines, and for reducing infection with plus-strand RNA viruses such as SARS-coronavirus. Type: Application Filed: November 3, 2004 Publication date: March 27, 2008 Inventors: David R. Scholl, Joseph D. Jollick, Laura Gillim-Ross, Jill Taylor, David E. Wentworth
• Compositions And Methods For Detecting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Publication number: 20110223659 Abstract: The invention provides compositions and methods for detecting the presence of SARS-coronavirus, for screening anti-SARS coronavirus agents and vaccines, and for reducing infection with plus-strand RNA viruses such as SARS-coronavirus. Type: Application Filed: December 7, 2010 Publication date: September 15, 2011 Inventors: David R. Scholl, Joseph D. Jollick, Laura Gillim-Ross, Jill Taylor, David E. Wentworth
• Ribozyme to cleave coronavirus gene Publication number: 20100273997 Abstract: Provided is a ribozyme to cleave a coronavirus gene and a therapeutic agent for a coronavirus infectious disease. A common base sequence in coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MHV was searched to design a ribozyme including a base sequence complementary thereto. Moreover, a therapeutic agent for a coronavirus infectious disease including such ribozyme was obtained. Type: Application Filed: August 9, 2006 Publication date: October 28, 2010 Inventors: Noboru Fukuda, Takahiro Ueno, Akiko Fukushima, Kazumichi Kuroda
• Compositions and methods for treating coronavirus infection and SARS Publication number: 20050002901 Abstract: The present invention provides methods of treating a coronavirus infection, and methods of reducing viral load, or reducing the time to viral clearance, or reducing morbidity or mortality in the clinical outcomes, in patients suffering from a coronavirus infection. The present invention further provides methods of reducing the risk that an individual will develop a pathological coronavirus infection, that has clinical sequelae. The present invention further provides methods of reducing the risk that an individual will develop SARS. The present invention further provides methods of treating SARS. The methods generally involve administering a therapeutically effective amount of a Type I or Type III interferon receptor agonist and/or a Type II interferon receptor agonist for the treatment of a coronavirus infection. Type: Application Filed: March 30, 2004 Publication date: January 6, 2005 Inventor: Lawrence Blatt
• FUSION PROTEINS OF RECOMBINANT SARS CORONAVIRUS STRUCTURAL PROTEINS, THEIR PRODUCTION AND USES Publication number: 20100150923 Abstract: Fusion proteins of recombinant SARS coronavirus structural proteins, their production and uses are provided. An optimised SARS coronavirus S protein gene which can be highly expressed in the mammalian cell strains and SARS coronavirus S protein variants comprising deletion, modification or mutation amino acids 318-510 corresponding to SARS coronavirus S protein are also provided. Type: Application Filed: June 13, 2006 Publication date: June 17, 2010 Applicant: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Inventors: Chengyu Jiang, Feng Guo, Shuan Rao, Bing Guan, Yi Huan, Peng Yang
• Civet animal model system for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus infection and uses thereof Publication number: 20060123499 Abstract: The present invention is directed towards the use of the masked palm civet Paguma larvata (“civet”) as an animal model system for SARS, and is based on the novel demonstration of the present invention that civets may be infected with exogenous coronavirus, and that such infection produces SARS-like symptoms in these infected animals. The present invention is directed to a civet model system for the study of the infection, replication, and clinical effects of exogenously introduced human SARS-CoV coronavirus strains, civet SARS-CoV-like coronavirus strains, or variants or derivatives thereof, and to the development of vaccines (or other methods of prevention) or treatment of infection or transmission to other civets or humans of these human SARS-CoV coronavirus strains, civet SARS-CoV-like coronavirus strains, or variants or derivatives thereof. Type: Application Filed: December 6, 2004 Publication date: June 8, 2006 Inventors: Donglai Wu, Xiangang Kong, Qingwen Meng, Yonggang Liu, Yuntao Guan, Xunnan Yin, Mouping Wang, Changwen Li, Ming Liao, Chao-an Xin, Jinding Chen, Changchun Tu, Hua Xuan, Yedong Yu
• METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR CORONAVIRUS DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPEUTICS Publication number: 20160238601 Abstract: The present invention provides methods and compositions for detecting a coronavirus in a sample and identifying the subgroup of the coronavirus in the sample. Type: Application Filed: October 14, 2014 Publication date: August 18, 2016 Inventors: Ralph Baric, Sudhakar Agnihothram, Boyd Yount
Bovine coronavirus and canine respiratory coronavirus diverged from a common ancestor in 1951. Bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 diverged in 1899. Bovine coronavirus diverged from the equine coronavirus species at the end of the 18th century. Another estimate suggests that human coronavirus OC43 diverged from bovine coronavirus in 1890.
The most closely related bat coronovirus and the SARS coronavirus diverged in 1986. A path of evolution of the SARS virus and keen relationship with bats have been proposed. The authors suggest that the coronaviruses have been coevolved with bats for a long time and the ancestors of SARS virus first infected the species of the genus Hipposideridae, subsequently spread to species of the Rhinolophidae and then to civets, and finally to humans.
Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. Currently there are seven known strains of Coronaviruses that infect humans. Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia, and bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis. The much publicised human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses as causative agents of the common cold are hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are difficult to grow in the laboratory.
Coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s; the earliest ones discovered were infectious bronchitis virus in chickens and two viruses from the nasal cavities of human patients with the common cold that were subsequently named human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43. Other members of this family have since been identified, including SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV NL63 in 2004, HKU1 in 2005, MERS-CoV in 2012, and 2019-nCoV in 2019; most of these have been involved in serious respiratory tract infections.
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organisation (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The World Health Organisation issued a global alert soon after. The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person. However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus. By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia. After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalised temporarily and then discharged. In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East. As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.
On 31 December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus, officially designated as 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organisation, was reported in Wuhan, China. By 24 January 2020, 25 deaths have been reported and 547 confirmed cases. The Wuhan strain has been identified as a new strain of Betacoronavirus from group 2B with an ~70% genetic similarity to the SARS-CoV. The virus was suspected to have originated in snakes, but many leading researchers disagree with this conclusion.
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