1642 – 1685 : The period of the English Civil War in which the laws on Usury are removed and Compound Interest (Usury) replaces Fees, and a banking puppet monarchy established under Charles II Protected by General Monk. The East India Company charters were changed giving the company legal authority to invent and enforce its own statutes, in contradiction to the Realm, and therefore no longer of the British Realm. An empire is born in private hands in the sovereign state called the Inner City of London acting as the front empire to the Roman elite.
1694 : Establishment of the privately owned Bank of England from which war would become a major part of the accumulation of debt owed to the families behind the Central Banks when it became the normal procedure for the central banks to issue fiat currencies.
Jewry as doctrine had been banned in England since Edward I, he built castles to penn in the Templars in Scotland and also the Florentines who had taken root in Wales and formed yet another New Jerusalem. Through the merchant class and families such as the Stanleys (Earls of Derby) and John of Gaunt (left) of the House Lancaster, had remained in England moving their collective wealth to secure their own on the throne in Henry VII. From the destruction reeked by Henry VIII they bolstered their presence and called themselves the Puritans and Nonconformists, both in active protest against the Church of England in their denial of Logos. In essence what this presents is that those who called themselves Puritans despised all forms of Christianity, not just that found in Rome, they did not accept the Gospels at all, they still waited for the return of a warrior Messiah leaving the Man of the Gospels as not fit for that role. They did however get one in England called Oliver Cromwell, but just who is Oliver Cromwell?
History is a place full of deceptions, misdirections, all out fakery and exaggerated timescales, usually to hide the truth and sanction illegitimacy. When it comes to the English Civil War much has been hidden especially as it relates to the players involved. James I was of dark complexion with dark features, so too both his Sons Charles I and II said to be the inheritance of the Medici line. According to the annals of the english monarch Charles II’s appearance was anything but English, with his sensuous curling mouth, dark complexion, black hair and dark brown eyes, he much resembled his Italian maternal grandmother, Marie de Medici’s side of the family. During his escape after the Battle of Worcester, he was referred to as ‘a tall, black man’ in parliamentary wanted posters, but are we are speaking of Persian Black?
One of the nick-names he acquired was the black boy, his height, at six feet two inches, probably inherited from his Danish paternal grandmother, Anne of Denmark, also set him apart from his contemporaries in a time when the average Englishman was far smaller than today. The average height of the Roman legions was 5 feet four.
The other players at this time were General George Monk and Oliver Cromwell (Williams). Monk without any doubt is a black man, with Cromwell looking very mulatto, not an uncommon produce from the German-Coburg bloodline which of course is of the Moor lines and so named the Black Nobility.
In essence this story is about dark coloured featured families who go to war with the mixed race defeating the existing monarchy, yet still, at the end of this tale, standing above the white British would be a dark complexioned people in the Black Nobility that operated the feudal system against the populations.
Edward I fought off the Templar power both in Wales and in Scotland. Robert the Bruce invited the Templars to Scotland after the purge in 1307. Castles were built by Edward as he expanded his wife’s Christian beliefs across the country. In Scotland it was Templar Knights and Grandmasters, in Wales it was the Florentine financiers having settled after the collapse of the Lombardy.
Edward I was either warring against the takeover of Scotland by the Templars, or working with them hidden, if it was the former then it would fail under his sons kingship when the barons would once again subvert the monarch and move themselves into position whereby the Provisions of Oxford could be enforced and rule by the barony became an accepted paradigm, yet still the King could overrule them as most of the Land was held in Trust by the Church through the power of the Monasteries.
Is Magna Carta a Templar invention?
Under Henry VII, a puppet of the Stanleys, the Templar elect had their man, whom they installed at the end of the Wars of the Roses. The War of the Roses was a battle between the Houses Lancaster and York, yet through the Stanleys, at the end of that war, England got the Tudors. Who the fuck are the Tudors?[X]
Through his son Henry VIII the entire Templar barony would move to relieve the Church of all its lands and property unto themselves, which means relieved from the English as they have achieved today with the National Trust, run by the House Rothschild, which is nothing other than a Legal claim on the land. Through Henry VIII a global corporate machine could be built to oppose the might of Spain, but that was for his daughter to front for the House Pallavacini. The Judas aristocracy now owned all that had belonged to the Church in England which kept all in Trust for the use by the people. Or did it?
The House of Pallavacini, the money behind the Stanley’s, would have a Queen to front the move against Spain, as Elizabeth I opened the doors to the building of a Navy, to support the global corporations that are the East India and Virginia companies under the mantle of the Admiralty Law.
The Civil War was the final move to install the Templars, now called a Puritan Barony over the newly formed New Model Army and nation. The Puritans being anti Gospel (Logos) and therefore a Judas sect coming out of the Royal Society, they of course were moving their own brand of gnosis into Christendom called, ‘Royal Society Science’. This became the new religion from which even abortion can be rationalised.
The Royal Society was commissioned by the poppet King Charles II.
I can think of four possible reasons for this event, outside the normal ideas of invasion and conquer :
- 1] through the Mulattos, the House of Guelph did use their men to undermine the House of Stuart and given Cromwell was financed out of Holland by Jewish interests, specifically Menasseh Ben Israel and Ebenezer Pratt, could be a move to undermine the Christian monarchy by non Christian lines.
- 2] Could be a racist move to remove the Hapsburg and Coburg Moors from the game, yet having sired 9 of Queen Victoria’s children, what Europe had from the end of the Napoleonic Wars was a Europe with half Rothschild half Coburg monarchs, perfect to commence the First World War.
- 3] In order to make live the Jesuit formed idea of Futurism, the West had to remove its black monarchs out of the game, to present the Judo-Christian doctrine to be a white affair only. If this was not achieved the narrative would not have worked, preventing the black-white divide they are manipulating for their own interests in the day to day.
- 4] Having allowed the House of Hapsburg to front the empire since the middle ages, birthed some serious deformities from the centuries of inbreeding, there was also many offspring from black slaves to the queens. In effect the Venetian Party of the North was to change into the New Venetian Party of the North, the former becoming the Old Venetian Party of the North. Confused…? Don’t be, it was decided that the old had to go hence the organised slaughter of the Hapsburg line. What was the Old Venetian Party of the North through the House of Hapsburg would become the New Venetian Party of the North under the Hanoverian House of Saxa and Coburg.
Futurism is the theology formulated by Jesuit writers, Manuel Lacunza and Francisco Ribera in 1585, that contends Revelations has yet to come to pass. This is the lie it came to pass in AD70. Yet they are building the Temple of Solomon, the second Temple and not the last?
Oliver Williams Cromwell
This is an entry for June 6th 1647, from Oliver Cromwell to an Ebenezer Pratt :
“In return for financial support will advocate admission of Jews to England; this, however, impossible while Charles living. Charles cannot be executed without trial, adequate grounds for which at present do not exist. Therefore, advise that Charles be assassinated, but will have nothing to do with procuring an assassin, though willing to help with his escape.”
Ebenezer Pratt’s reply was on July 12th 1647 :
“Will grant financial aid as soon as Charles removed and Jews admitted. Assassination too dangerous. Charles should be given the opportunity to escape. His recapture will then make trial and execution possible. The support will be liberal. But useless to discuss terms until trial commences.”
In 1658 the island of St Helena was gifted by Cromwell to the East India Company. The same kind of deception would be carried out with the Caribbean Islands which became Jewish slaver strongholds from which they would breed a new group of fronts to play out their games in North America.
Oliver Cromwell was born 25 April 1599 died 1658.
He was one of the 59 signatories of King Charles I’s death warrant in 1649, and he dominated the short-lived corporate Commonwealth of England as a member of the Rump Parliament (1649–1653)
It is thought that Cromwell suffered from kidney stones or similar urinary/kidney complaints and in 1658 in the aftermath of malarial fever Cromwell was once again struck down with a urinary infection, which saw his decline and eventual death at the age of 59 on Friday 3 September. Co-incidentally this was also the anniversary of his victories at Worcester and the Scottish town of Dunbar during the Scottish campaign of 1650-51. It is thought that Cromwell’s death was caused by septicemia brought on by the infection, although his grief following the death of his supposed favourite daughter Elizabeth the previous month from what is thought to be cancer certainly contributed to his rapid decline. Both Cromwell and his daughter received an elaborate ceremony (Cromwell’s funeral was based on that of King James I) and buried in a newly-created vault in Henry VII’s chapel at Westminster Abbey. This is further evidence that cromwell was expanding the takeover of England by the Roman elite through the Tudors who of course represented the House Pallavacini.
In June 1617 Cromwell left Cambridge without completing his degree to return to the homestead to support his mother and seven unmarried sisters. Whilst overseeing his father’s land, Cromwell is said to have studied law briefly at Lincoln’s Inn of Court in London, where it is thought that he met his future wife Elizabeth, (left) daughter of Sir James Bourchier, a knighted London fur and leather merchant and owner of a significant amount of land with strong connections to the puritan gentry of Essex. In 1620, when he was twenty-one, he married Jewess Elizabeth Bourchier aged 23, at St Giles’, Cripplegate. The groom was described in the marriage settlement as ‘Oliver Cromwell alias Williams’.
On his small income Cromwell supported both his wife and his ever expanding family (Oliver and Elizabeth had nine children in all, although only six survived into adulthood). As the only surviving son himself, Cromwell was also tasked with supporting his widowed mother, who outlived her husband by a further 37 years.
In 1648, after Cromwell was entertained with opulence and great magnificence in the first Masonic Lodge in Edinburgh, he would be moved to commission a Freemasonic Lodge with the sole intent of undermining Charles I. The Lodge would be successful.
Cromwell set up the Commonwealth of England, we all know of the Commonwealth, but Cromwell’s Commonwealth is a rather different animal than the British commonwealth still ongoing today. Cromwell’s Commonwealth belongs in the heights of aristocratic existence and is administered through the secret societies. When the East India Companies invaded a nation they would set up the secret society commonwealth in the shadows. When they had completed the shadow government they would offer up a fake move for Independence, but it would only be independence from the British Government, not the Crown which is the real power and the entity the secret societies operate to uphold and expand.
Oliver Cromwell was not directly descended from Henry VIII’s spin doctor, Thomas Cromwell, but from Thomas’s sister, Katherine. Katherine had married Oliver’s great-great-grandfather Morgan Williams, after which the family began adopting the Cromwell surname.
Historic accounts of Cromwell speak of his ugliness, mentioning a huge growth on his lower lip, but when you look at his portraits, (below) Oliver looks Mulatto. Cromwell was responsible for the Genocide of Blacks in Ireland and Scotland and for sending the same to the Barbados Plantations and into America in the areas the Puritans controlled. This opens the connection to Harvard University and the first documented use of vaccinations, first named Ingrafting then inoculation and finally to vaccine from the French word for Cow.
If I may now turn to the new arrival Meghan Markle, of mixed race and very vocal about all things that is garbage, such as feminism and censorship of any speak against the mass influx of African people into Europe, she, like her new family, wants all your children to register as mental retards.
Is it a coincidence that Meghan Markle made her first public outing alongside the Queen of England for a celebration of Commonwealth Day 2018 wearing a military style beret, perhaps to suggest she is a little warrior, from the same designer used by Princess Diana?
If we look at the Standard of the Lord Protector from 1655 to 1659 (below) we find a black dragon, we also find the harp. The harp was adopted as a symbol of the Kingdom of Ireland on the coinage from 1542, and in the Royal Standard of King James (VI of Scotland / I of England) in 1603, and would continue to feature on all English and United Kingdom Royal Standards ever since, though the styles of the harps depicted differed in some respects.
Cromwell’s “wax” death mask (below) is probably the best-known death mask in English history.
It was originally owned by Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753) whose collection contributed to the founding of the British Museum where it is still displayed.
Oliver Cromwell and the House of Pallavicini
The Pallavicini family is a top bloodline in the global crime syndicate and they govern Palatine Hill in Rome. They had multiple family branches in Italy and Austria and ancestry that ruled around Athens Greece. They have ruled as princes in Genoa, Milan, Rome, and Vienna. They recently married in with the German House of Wurttemberg. The Pallavicini family married with the Rospigliosi Papal Nobility and also have a branch in London through the Cromwell family. Horatio Pallavicini was a financier for the British Crown and his family merged with the Cromwell’s through several marriages creating the variant name Paravicini. Charles Vincent Somerset Paravicini is a current member of the British aristocracy. The Pallavicini family ruled over ancient Parthia or Iran and the Pahlavi dynasty that ruled Iran more recently are an ancestral branch of the Pallavicini family. Full story
What is Puritanism?
Antinomian controversy -to be against or opposed to the Law.
Derived from the Greek anti laIt took influence from Hugh Peter and John Cotton, mind control, satanism, Hyper Suggestibility and the Jewish Puritan. Its date is 1 May.
The Antinomian Controversy, also known as the Free Grace Controversy, was a religious and political conflict in the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. The controversy pitted most of the colony’s ministers and magistrates against some adherents of the free grace theology of Puritan minister John Cotton.
Puritanism came from within the Teutonic Knights which was another branch of the Templars.
Modern historian David Hall views the events of 1636 to 1638 as being important to an understanding of religion, society, and gender in early American history.
Historian Charles Adams writes, “It is no exaggeration now to say that in the early story of New England subsequent to the settlement of Boston, there was in truth no episode more characteristic, more interesting, or more far-reaching in its consequences, than the so-called Antinomian controversy.” It came at a time when the new society was still taking shape and had a decisive effect upon the future of New England.
The controversy had an international effect, in that Puritans in England followed the events closely. According to Hall, the English were looking for ways to combat the Antinomians who appeared after the Puritan Revolution began in 1640. In Hall’s view, the English Congregationalists used the controversy to demonstrate that Congregationalism was the best path for religion, whereas the Presbyterians used the controversy to demonstrate the exact opposite.
Presbyterian writer Robert Bailie, a minister in the Church of Scotland, used the controversy to criticise colonial Congregationalism, particularly targeting John Cotton. The long-term effect of the Antinomian controversy was that it committed Massachusetts to a policy of strict religious conformity. In 1894 Adams wrote, “Its historical significance was not seriously shaken until 1819 when the Unitarian movement under Channing brought about results to Calvinistic theology similar to those which the theories of Darwin worked on the Mosaic account of the origin of man.
Offshoot of Puritans – Merrie Mount in Quincy, MA with leader Thomas Morton erecting maypole 1628. After being thrown out a couple of times he came back and advocated for the Massachusetts Bay Corporation and Colony to fuse together to create the commonwealth, fusing communism and corporatism, the very essence of Puritanism. Puritanism was the false creed Jews would convert too after they got into trouble with their garbage in Europe.
From the cult formed at Merri Mount would spawn :
The idea of Communes for the 1960s-70s
Declaration of Independence
John Quincy Adams
The Maypole all, of which influenced – The Merry Pranksters (1950s) they formed the backdrop rebellious script for the introduction of LSD.
Christian Hebrewism – ChristianZionism
Cromwell’s English Commonwealth took hold after Massachusetts Commonwealth.
Influencing the Diggers were :
The New Left
Peter Cayote, Actor – Village Voice, – Psychedelic Revolution-Counterculture
The Straight on the Haight
Village Voice was influenced by –
Dead Sea Scrolls
Village Voice influenced –
Greenwich Village took its influence from –
George Hunter White
Operation Midnight Climax
Anne Waldman (Dead Sea Scrolls)
Joyce Johnson (Glassman)
Greenwich Village influenced –
Mabel Dodge Luhan
Nick Sand, aka David Roy Shephard
Suzan Weed (Sweed)
The Beat Generation
The East Village
In essence the entire counter-culture drug infused rock n roll script, came out of Puritan weaponry that would undermine western civilisation in order they could replace Christianity with the Judas Cult called Judaism..
[X]The Tudors descended on Henry VII’s mother’s side from John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, one of the illegitimate children of the 14th century English prince John of Gaunt (the third surviving son of Edward III) by Gaunt’s long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. If you look at the images of Edward III and his other offspring they are as you would expect from a white red haired Celt, when it comes to John of Gaunt, we see a very dark man looking absolutely nothing like Edward or bios so called brothers. Swynford is also not what we would see as white Celtic English either.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland (later the Kingdom of Ireland) from 1485 until 1603, with five monarchs in that period. The Tudors succeeded the House of Plantagenet as rulers of the Kingdom of England, and were succeeded by the House of Stuart.
Wales became the possession of the Florentine bloodlines after the collapse of the Lombardy from the Isle of Man through Anglesey. The shift in bloodlines came via the Earls of Derby, the Stanleys.
[A] When William II, Prince of Orange and head of the Dutch Republic died in 1650, it gave hopes to Cromwell that the Dutch Republic might join the Commonwealth in a military alliance against Spain.
Cromwell’s hopes may have also been supported by the contribution some Dutch did to the draining of the “Fens” from East Anglia to gain more land over the sea, a region he knew well as MP of Huntingdonshire and Isle of Ely. They’re draining was initiated by one Cornelius Vermuyden (1595 –1677) a Dutch engineer who introduced Dutch reclamation methods to Britain.
To this purpose, Cromwell sent in 1651 Oliver St John to The Hague in Holland as one of the envoys to negotiate a union between England and the Dutch Republic, a mission in which he entirely failed, leading to the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-54). However, Cromwell had another card up his sleeve; he also wanted to attract the rich Jews of Amsterdam to London so that they might transfer their important trade interests with Spain from Holland to England. Contacts were made with Amsterdam’s chief rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel, a client and friend of Rembrandt. Cromwell invited the rabbi to come over to London in September 1655, after the end of the Anglo-Dutch war, to negotiate the return of the Jews to England (expelled by King Edward I in 1290).
My Cromwell portrait is a kind of posthumous gratitude from the Jew I am.
 Oliver Cromwell was born in a house in the town’s high street which was rebuilt in about 1830 and is today called Cromwell House. He was the only son of Robert and Elizabeth Cromwell to survive, though he would grow up among a flock of sisters, he was named Oliver after his uncle, the richest member of the family, Sir Oliver Cromwell, who lived in hospitable grandeur at Hinchingbrooke House, outside Huntingdon.
Oliver Cromwell should really be named Oliver Williams. His great-grandfather was Richard Williams, who in Henry VIII’s time rose so far in the world under the wing of his maternal uncle Thomas Cromwell that he gratefully changed his surname to Cromwell. Richard’s father was Morgan Williams from Glamorgan, who owned property in England and married Thomas Cromwell’s elder sister Katherine. Richard himself remained a favourite with Henry VIII after Thomas Cromwell’s fall. The spoils of his service to the state included land taken from Ramsey Abbey and the nunnery at Hinchingbrooke. They were inherited by his son Sir Henry Cromwell, known as ‘the golden knight’ for his lavish spending. He entertained Elizabeth I in style at Hinchingbrooke in 1564, while his eldest son, Sir Oliver, entertained James I several times and finished the job of throwing the family wealth away.
The Cromwell’s were now well connected in England’s eastern counties. Sir Henry’s second son, Robert Cromwell, who inherited the house in Huntingdon, was a gentleman farmer, justice of the peace, member of parliament, and the town’s joint mayor. Two Cromwell sisters, Elizabeth and Frances, were respectively the mothers of John Hampden, a leading Parliamentarian against Charles I, and Edward Whalley, a future Roundhead general and regicide. Oliver Cromwell’s own mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of William Steward, of a comfortably off Norfolk family who farmed Ely’s abbey and cathedral lands. The idea that the Stewards were connected with the royal Stuarts and descended from a Scottish prince shipwrecked on the Norfolk coast in 1406 is a non-starter. The Lord Protector himself never took it seriously, though he did once joke that his mother was a Stuart at a drinking party in Edinburgh in 1651.
 Oldest Masonic Lodge Minutes – July 31, 1599,: Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1 has records to prove its long time existence as the Oldest Masonic Lodge. Most impressively, its first 5 pages of minutes incorporate the Schaw Statutes which are dated December 28, 1598. Six months later, on July 31, 1599, are to be found the minutes which confirm the lodge’s claim as having the oldest existing Masonic minutes. It must be noted, however, that from these minutes there exists no conclusive evidence that the lodge was actually constituted on this date nor that it is, in actuality, the oldest lodge.
One school of thought holds that Cromwell himself established a Masonic society as a way of uniting the various forces opposed to the monarchy and all the good and bad that it represented.
Refer Abbe Larudan.
His strongest argument for the truth of his theory is that the purposes of the Masonic Institution and of the political course of Cromwell are identical, namely, to sustain the doctrines of liberty and equality among mankind. Rejecting all the claims to antiquity that have been urged on behalf of the Institution, he thinks that it was in England where the Order of Freemasonry first saw the light of day, and that it is to Cromwell that it owes its origin. And this theory …(was)… confirmed by his reading of the history of the English Protector and his mature reflections on the morals and the laws of the Order, where he detected at every step the presence of Cromwell.
The object of Cromwell, as it has been already said, was by the organisation of a secret society, whose members would be bound by the most solemn ties of fraternity, to reconcile the various religions and political sects which prevailed in England in the reign of Charles I to the prosecution of his views, which were equally opposed to the supremacy of the king and to the power of the Parliament, and as a consequence of the destruction of both, to the elevation of himself to the headship of affairs.
Another school of thought links the Rosicrucians with Freemasonry. This version allows that Freemasons were also associated with the monarchy.
… In the “History and Evolution of Freemasonry”, the author writes of Cromwell’s links to Masonry, “Cromwell regularly met at the Masonic Lodge in the Tavern called “Crown”. This was a lodge for the Aristocratic Rosicrucian gentry, the new elite who were newly rich. (bk-25,292,294,300)
Cromwell was supposed by many to be a Rosicrucian himself, since he was on the best of terms with them”. (bk-10,126) (bk-5 & 6)
Whether Cromwell was a Mason or not, he was in fact surrounded by both Orders and his revolution was plotted in Rosicrucian Masonic Lodges. (bk-2,88)
During this time, Masonry in England was divided between the lodges that backed Cromwell and the Lodges who were Stuart supporters and of Templar origin. (bk-7,159-160) …
The Moray Hamilton tie-up is another twist to the story. In this version, the Monarchist Freemasons are said to have recruited Moray into the brotherhood, and by such means, the claim is, the brotherhood was able to defray some of the animosity between the warring factions. (Moray is also said to have corresponded secretly with the French and was honoured by Charles 1 and his eventual successor …, so I’m not sure what to make of the Hamilton recruiting Moray story.)
… The place was Newcastle and the time was 1641 and in the middle of it all, generals from both sides met to initiate a Covenanter general into the fraternity. He was Sir Robert Moray, professional soldier, spy, statesman, knight, Freemason and we meet him next but before we do let’s examine another Scot who will be one of the witnesses at Moray’s initiation, his name is James Hamilton, and he is next in line for the throne should anything happen to the Stewarts.
There is no record of when Hamilton became a Mason. He was in France fighting in the 30 Years War while his relatives joined the Edinburgh Lodge in 1634, not returning until 1638. Therefore he would have joined between the time he returned to England and 1641 or before he left for France in 1633. What we know for sure is that James the first Duke of Hamilton was one of the few men, along with Moray, that King Charles trusted. When Hamilton returned to England in 1638 Charles made him Commissioner for Scotland. His first job was to try to stem the riots caused by Charles forcing an Anglican prayer book upon the Scottish churches. It was a disaster but with Hamilton away there had been no one to stop the headstrong Charles from taking this provocative action.No amount of work on Hamilton’s part could stop the rebellion.
In 1640 Alexander Leslie advanced into England at the head of a covenanter army defeating the Royalist at Newburn and holding Newcastle. In the spring of 1641 Hamilton traveled to Newcastle to attempt to reach a settlement with the Covenanters. He found himself face to face with two other recently returned veterans of the 30 Years War his friend Robert Moray and his cousin Alexander Hamilton both of whom had been made Generals under Leslie. Alexander was already a member of the Edinburgh lodge and sympathetic to retaining the monarchy. Between them they convinced Moray that a Scot on the throne of England was better than a religious Republic. In March he agreed to join the secret fraternity and on May 20th joined the Lodge of Edinburgh while still at Newcastle. The three Generals were able to persuade Leslie to withdraw and the first Bishops war ended.
One final fact to consider in regard to this much maligned Royalist is that after his capture in 1648 during a failed attempt to rescue his king Hamilton was given a chance to go free by Lord Cromwell. All he had to do was to tell Cromwell who his allies were in England, and he could return to Scotland after paying a fine of 1500 pounds. Hamilton chose to lay down his life rather than forfeit his integrity. He might have been the model for Hiram Abiff. …
This telling makes the Freemasons a predominantly Scottish Monarchist group and the 1598 Shaw Statues lend weight to the claim that the Freemasons were originally supporters and beneficiaries of the status quo, the Monarchy and Papal authority. And if Freemason term did derive from the building trades (which I doubt), the Master of Works connection could provide a (fairly tenuous) path for the adoption of the mason designation.
Further, the Knights Templar connection mentioned above could enable the establishment of a link with the past. I should say that I find the Knights Templar as royalist/monarchist supporters a bit hard to fathom. The Templars were subject to Inquisition and it is unlikely that the Catholic monarchs of France, England, Scotland, Spain , etc., would have included them in their entourage.
In contrast, I suppose the lodges convened by the Cromwell/Covenanter/Calvinist/Presbyterian/Puritan/Pilgrim/Protestant line can get that link with the past from being inheritors of the “Chosen” mantle.
I suspect that it is via this Covenenter, “lost tribe” narrative that the rebuilding of the Temple of Solomon idea gets currency. And this in turn suggests a reason for the adoption of the name Mason. They are the masons who will rebuild the temple.
Interestingly, Cromwell is also said to have had dealings with another branch of the “Chosen” in Manasseh ben Israel a leading light in the Amsterdam Jewish community, whose representations eventually led to the readmission of Jews into England by Cromwell about 1655.
… 1640-Manasseh ben Israel named to head Yeshiva (enabled by the Bankers Perreiras) enabling him to focus on writings. Manasseh was most profoundly interested in Messianic problems. He was full of Cabalistic opinions. He entered into correspondence with Christina, Queen of Sweden, ostensibly regarding matters of Hebrew learning, but probably with the design of getting her help in obtaining for the Jews admission into Sweden. But his chief attention was directed to securing the readmission of Jews into England.
[Antonio de Montezinos, nee Aaron Levi, a 17th century converso (convert) who reclaimed his Jewish ancestry after fleeing the Inquisition in Portugal, went to Peru in search of a “holy people” rumoured to be living among the Amazon Indians. On a remote jungle river near the Ecuadorian border, Montezinos was greeted by a band of light-skinned “Indians” in dugout canoes. On learning that he was an Israelite from across the seas, the fair-complexioned aborigines recited the “Shema Israel” and announced they were descendants of the tribe of Reuben. On his return to Amsterdam, Montezinos shared his discovery with a famous converse rabbi, Menasseh ben Israel, who functioned as a Jewish ambassador to the gentiles, broadcast the news on his printing press that the Biblical prophesy had been fulfilled. He predicted that the scattered tribes of Israel were soon to reunite in Jerusalem to rebuild Solomon’s Temple and usher in the Messianic age.]
1647-Oliver Cromwell conspires with Manasseh ben Israel’s agent to execute English King Charles I. [An entry for June 6th 1647, from Oliver Cromwell to an Ebenezer Pratt, says (in modern language) :
“In return for financial support will advocate admission of Jews to England; this, however, impossible while Charles living, Charles cannot be executed without trial, adequate grounds for which at present do not exist, Therefore, advise that Charles be assassinated, but will have nothing to do with procuring an assassin, though willing to help with his escape.”
Ebenezer Pratt’s reply was on July 12th 1647 :
“Will grant financial aid as soon as Charles removed and Jews admitted, assassination too dangerous. Charles should be given the opportunity to escape, his recapture will then make trial and execution possible. The support will be liberal, but useless to discuss terms until trial commences.”
Another trial was ordered by Cromwell because his agreement with his backers in Amsterdam was that Charles would be executed. The indictment against Charles was drawn up by Isaac Dorislaus, the agent in England of Manasseh ben Israel, one of the main funders from Amsterdam of the Cromwell ‘revolution’.”] …
(This link has an interesting collection of events.)
 The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic’s existence was declared through “An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth”, adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth was vested primarily in the Parliament and a Council of State. During the period, fighting continued, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now referred to as the Third English Civil War.
In 1653, after the forcible dissolution of the Rump Parliament, the Army Council adopted the Instrument of Government which made Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of a united “Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland”, inaugurating the period now usually known as the Protectorate. After Cromwell’s death, and following a brief period of rule under his son, Richard Cromwell, the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved in 1659 and the Rump Parliament recalled, the start of a process that led to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. The term Commonwealth is sometimes used for the whole of 1649 to 1660 – a period referred to by monarchists as the Interregnum – although for other historians, the use of the term is limited to the years prior to Cromwell’s formal assumption of power in 1653.
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